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He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. In , Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality. During the same year, he encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoyevsky , to whom he felt an immediate kinship.

However, before fulfilling this promise, Nietzsche slipped too far into illness. At the beginning of , Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy. Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power : Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values , he seems to have abandoned this idea and, instead, used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits.

In the autumn of , his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and „fate”. He overestimated the increasing response to his writings, however, especially to the recent polemic, The Case of Wagner.

On his 44th birthday, after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist , he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. In its preface—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares, „Hear me! For I am such and such a person.

Above all, do not mistake me for someone else. Moreover, he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs. On 3 January , Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground.

In the following few days, Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnzettel or Wahnbriefe literally „Delusion notes” or „letters” —to a number of friends including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt.

Most of them were signed ” Dionysus „, though some were also signed „der Gekreuzigte” meaning „the crucified one”. To his former colleague Burckhardt, Nietzsche wrote: [69]. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. Wilhelm , Bismarck , and all anti-Semites abolished. Additionally, he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany, [70] writing also that the pope should be put in jail and that he, Nietzsche, created the world and was in the process of having all anti-Semites shot dead.

On 6 January , Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. The following day, Overbeck received a similar letter and decided that Nietzsche’s friends had to bring him back to Basel. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness, [72] and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger.

From November to February , the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche’s condition.

In March , Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic and, in May , brought him to her home in Naumburg. In February, they ordered a fifty-copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner , but the publisher C. Naumann secretly printed one hundred. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content.

In , Nietzsche’s sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania in Paraguay following the suicide of her husband. She studied Nietzsche’s works and, piece by piece, took control of their publication. Overbeck was dismissed and Gast finally co-operated. After the death of Franziska in , Nietzsche lived in Weimar , where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed visitors, including Rudolf Steiner who in had written Friedrich Nietzsche: a Fighter Against His Time , one of the first books praising Nietzsche , [76] to meet her uncommunicative brother.

Elisabeth employed Steiner as a tutor to help her to understand her brother’s philosophy. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. Nietzsche’s insanity was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis , in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. Although most commentators [ who? In and , Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes.

They partially paralyzed him, leaving him unable to speak or walk. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August , he had another stroke during the night of 24—25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration, proclaiming: „Holy be your name to all future generations! Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche’s early outlines and took liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche’s intent.

For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist , where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari , the editor of Nietzsche’s Nachlass , called it a forgery. However, his Nachlass and The Will to Power are distinct. General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a „German philosopher”. When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for annulment of his Prussian citizenship.

At least toward the end of his life, Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish. His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year I am proud of my Polish descent. Most scholars dispute Nietzsche’s account of his family’s origins.

The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick ; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz ; it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. According to biographer R.

Hollingdale , Nietzsche’s propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of his „campaign against Germany”. More states that Nietzsche’s claims of having an illustrious lineage were a parody on autobiographical conventions, and suspects Ecce Homo , with its self-laudatory titles, such as ” Why I Am So Wise „, as being a work of satire. Nietzsche never married. Deussen cited the episode of Cologne 's brothel in February as instrumental to understanding the philosopher’s way of thinking, mostly about women.

Nietzsche was surreptitiously accompanied to a „call house” from which he clumsily escaped upon seeing „a half dozen apparitions dressed in sequins and veils. For him, women had to sacrifice themselves to the care and benefit of men. Some maintain that Nietzsche contracted it in a male brothel in Genoa. Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner’s wife Cosima Wagner. Because of Nietzsche’s evocative style and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions.

His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations. In Western philosophy, Nietzsche’s writings have been described as a case of free revolutionary thought, that is, revolutionary in its structure and problems, although not tied to any revolutionary project. The Apollonian and Dionysian is a two-fold philosophical concept, based on features of ancient Greek mythology: Apollo and Dionysus. This relationship takes the form of a dialectic. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism found in the so-called wisdom of Silenus.

The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttriebe „artistic impulses” forms dramatic arts or tragedies. He argued that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians.

Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, logic and the principle of individuation , whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, ecstasy and unity hence the omission of the principle of individuation. Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other, formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture : [] [] the Apollonian a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian a state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries.

In this mold, a man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make Apollonian order of his unjust and chaotic Dionysian fate, though he dies unfulfilled.

Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses the knowledge that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to act at all. Hamlet falls under this category—he glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this.

He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, the experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. Frenzy acts as intoxication and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables the creation of any art. In this state one enriches everything out of one’s own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection.

This having to transform into perfection is—art. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides , that tragedy begins its Untergang literally 'going under’ or 'downward-way;’ meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.

Nietzsche objects to Euripides’ use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge.

Plato continued along this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses found in the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy.

He notes that without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. Only the fertile interplay of these two forces brought together as an art represented the best of Greek tragedy. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture, where anthropologist Ruth Benedict acknowledges Nietzschean opposites of „Apollonian” and „Dionysian” as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures.

Here Foucault referenced Nietzsche’s description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things and any coherent sense of objective truth. In Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person.

He pointed out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one person to the next. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass.

The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking. Humanity still has no goal. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own.

It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavors, as well as their political understanding. Weber, for example, relied on Nietzsche’s perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant , Descartes , and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche attacked the thing in itself and cogito ergo sum „I think, therefore I am” as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.

While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay, [] he still commended him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume 's moral philosophy: [].

For it was Nietzsche’s historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche’s genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place. For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during the human history from thinking in terms of „good and bad” toward „good and evil”. The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations.

Aristocratic values of good and bad coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves. Nietzsche presented this „master morality” as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. To be „bad” was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred.

Value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive.

Nietzsche saw slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves. He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves. By denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them.

It was used to overcome the slave’s sense of inferiority before their better-off masters. It does so by making out slave weakness, for example, to be a matter of choice, by relabeling it as „meekness”. The „good man” of master morality is precisely the „evil man” of slave morality, while the „bad man” is recast as the „good man”. Nietzsche saw slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans who are ” motley „.

Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. He cautioned, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses and should be left to them. Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own „inner law”.

A long-standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality. However, eminent Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation, writing that Nietzsche’s analyses of these two types of morality were used only in a descriptive and historic sense; they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorification.

In Daybreak , Nietzsche began his „Campaign against Morality”. Nietzsche’s concept ” God is dead ” applies to the doctrines of Christendom , though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he complimented for fostering critical thought.

Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practiced was not a proper representation of Jesus’ teachings, as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did; in particular, his example of refusing to judge people, something that Christians constantly did.

Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. That loss of strength in which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. Pity makes suffering contagious. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a „calamitous error”, [] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Christian world.

While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism, he was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Morality , he explicitly condemned antisemitism and pointed out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claimed antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon.

Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was „despicable” and contrary to European ideals. The statement ” God is dead ,” occurring in several of Nietzsche’s works notably in The Gay Science , has become one of his best-known remarks. On the basis of it, many commentators [] regard Nietzsche as an atheist ; others such as Kaufmann suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. Scientific developments and the increasing secularization of Europe had effectively 'killed’ the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years.

The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism , the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. Nietzsche believed that Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value , belief in God which justifies the evil in the world , and a basis for objective knowledge. In constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness.

As Heidegger put the problem, „If God as the supra sensory ground and goal of all reality is dead if the supra sensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer.

Schopenhauer’s doctrine—which Nietzsche also referred to as Western Buddhism —advocates separating oneself from will and desires to reduce suffering. Nietzsche characterized this ascetic attitude as a „will to nothingness”. Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.

This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although, in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent; this „will to nothingness” is still a disavowed form of willing. A nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be and that the world as it ought to do not exist. According to this view, our existence action, suffering , willing, feeling has no meaning: this 'in vain’ is the nihilists’ pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

Nietzsche approached the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world had „become conscious” in him. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure.

Heidegger interpreted the death of God with what he explained as the death of metaphysics. He concluded that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement „God is dead. Scholars such as Nishitani and Parkes have aligned Nietzsche’s religious thought with Buddhist thinkers, particularly those of the Mahayana tradition. A basic element in Nietzsche’s philosophical outlook is the ” will to power ” der Wille zur Macht , which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival.

In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed and attacked concepts from philosophies then popularly embraced, such as Schopenhauer’s notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism. Utilitarians claim that what moves people is the desire to be happy and accumulate pleasure in their lives. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society, [] and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se.

It is a consequence of overcoming hurdles to one’s actions and the fulfillment of the will. Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final, [] regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man’s affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power.

At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms. Likewise, he rejected the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces. Other scholars disagree that Nietzsche considered the material world to be a form of the will to power: Nietzsche thoroughly criticized metaphysics, and by including the will to power in the material world, he would simply be setting up a new metaphysics.

Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria. However, a recent study Huang shows that although it is true that in Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, this indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 „aphorisms” saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power this book contains „aphorisms” , but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as the critique of morality while touching upon the „feeling of power” only once.

It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter „Of the Vision and the Riddle” in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places. To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , „love of fate”.

According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence — the mere possibility of it, and the reality of speculating on that possibility — which is so significant in modern thought: „The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden’ [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts’ is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought. Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence:.

Nehamas concluded that, if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas, Nietzsche’s thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.

According to Laurence Lampert , „the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism II. Zarathustra’s gift of the overman is given to mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.

Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves: and you want to be the ebb of that great tide, and would rather go back to the beast than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughing-stock or a painful embarrassment. You have made your way from worm to man, and much within you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even yet man is more of an ape than any ape. Even the wisest among you is only a conflict and hybrid of plant and ghost.

But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not a goal: what is lovable in man is that he is an over-going and a going under. The last man is possible only by mankind’s having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm. Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval, yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values.

Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. The Nazis attempted to incorporate the concept into their ideology by means of taking Nietzsche’s figurative form of speech and creating a literal superiority over other ethnicities.

She reworked Nietzsche’s unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche’s stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.

Through her published editions, Nietzsche’s work became associated with fascism and Nazism ; [] 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation of his work and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Although Nietzsche has been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism.

The foundation of his anti-Christianity is essentially anti-Semitic. Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. In his opinion, some people would be able to become superior individuals through the use of willpower. By rising above mass culture, those persons would produce higher, brighter, and healthier human beings.

A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir , [] who became the main opponents in his philosophy, and later engaged, via the work of Kuno Fischer in particular, with the thought of Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his „precursor” in many respects [] [] but as a personification of the „ascetic ideal” in others.

However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a „moral fanatic”, Plato as „boring”, Mill as a „blockhead”, and of Spinoza, he asked: „How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray? Nietzsche’s philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors. While at Basel, Nietzsche lectured on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a „lost link” in the development of his thought.

His symbolism of the world as „child play” marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche’s work was „an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer’s two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.

These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Chesterton believed that „Out of [Carlyle] flows most of the philosophy of Nietzsche”, qualifying his statement by adding that they were „profoundly different” in character. Nietzsche’s works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career.

However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. In the years after Nietzsche’s death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.

He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche’s ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States.

Writer Donald Mitchell noted that Gustav Mahler was „attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings”. He also quoted Mahler himself, and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche’s conception and affirmative approach to nature, which Mahler presented in his Third Symphony using Zarathustra’s roundelay. Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing „another chapter of symphonic autobiography”.

Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.

Gordon [] and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a „creator” and „emissary of life”. He also shared Nietzsche’s view of tragedy. Adorno [] can be seen in the Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche’s philosophy as expressing the „humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham”. Nietzsche’s growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.

Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche’s ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did, it may not have been extensively.

Alfred Baeumler was perhaps the most notable exponent of Nietzschean thought in Nazi Germany. Baeumler had published his book „Nietzsche, Philosopher and Politician” in , before the Nazis’ rise to power, and subsequently published several editions of Nietzsche’s work during the Third Reich. Newton [] read Nietzsche.

Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with „curious interest”, and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche’s book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. Georges Bataille was also influential in this revival, defending Nietzsche against appropriation by the Nazis with his notable essay „Nietzsche and Fascists”. Camus described Nietzsche as „the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd „.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German philosopher — For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. Weimar , Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , Germany. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Continental philosophy Nietzscheanism. Other schools. Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche.

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